Nursing Tips

Umbilical Cord Inspection - LevelUpRN

Umbilical Cord Inspection

Cathy Parkes

After birth, the placenta and umbilical cord are inspected for abnormalities. The umbilical cord should contain 2 arteries and 1 vein and have no green/brown discoloration.

Umbilical Cord Inspection

Cathy Parkes

After birth, the placenta and umbilical cord are inspected for abnormalities. The umbilical cord should contain 2 arteries and 1 vein and have no green/brown discoloration.

For a patient wishing to suppress lactation, encourage the use of a supportive bra for 72 hours after delivery.

Suppressing Lactation: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

For a patient wishing to suppress lactation, encourage the use of a supportive bra for 72 hours after delivery.

Suppressing Lactation: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

For a patient wishing to suppress lactation, encourage the use of a supportive bra for 72 hours after delivery.

Kernicterus is a possible complication of hyperbilirubinemia in the infant.

Kernicterus

Cathy Parkes

Kernicterus is a possible complication of hyperbilirubinemia in the infant.

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Kernicterus

Cathy Parkes

Kernicterus is a possible complication of hyperbilirubinemia in the infant.

1 comment
Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) is a progestin-only contraception, meaning it is okay for patients who are breastfeeding or have a prior history of clotting!

Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)

Cathy Parkes

Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) is a progestin-only contraception, meaning it is okay for patients who are breastfeeding or have a prior history of clotting!

Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)

Cathy Parkes

Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) is a progestin-only contraception, meaning it is okay for patients who are breastfeeding or have a prior history of clotting!

Medications for the infant after delivery include "eyes and thighs".

Newborn Medications

Cathy Parkes

Medications for the infant after delivery include "eyes and thighs": erythromycin ophthalmic ointment to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum, Vitamin K administered IM in the vastus lateralis to prevent bleeding, and the...

Newborn Medications

Cathy Parkes

Medications for the infant after delivery include "eyes and thighs": erythromycin ophthalmic ointment to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum, Vitamin K administered IM in the vastus lateralis to prevent bleeding, and the...

Educate breastfeeding mothers that a correct latch is demonstrated by baby's nose, cheeks, and chin touching the breast with a portion of the areola in the infant's mouth.

Breastfeeding: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Educate breastfeeding mothers that a correct latch is demonstrated by baby's nose, cheeks, and chin touching the breast with a portion of the areola in the infant's mouth. Adequate breastfeeding...

Breastfeeding: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Educate breastfeeding mothers that a correct latch is demonstrated by baby's nose, cheeks, and chin touching the breast with a portion of the areola in the infant's mouth. Adequate breastfeeding...

If an infant is circumcised, clean the penis with warm water & apply petroleum jelly at every diaper change.

Circumcision Care

Cathy Parkes

If an infant is circumcised, clean the penis with warm water & apply petroleum jelly at every diaper change.

Circumcision Care

Cathy Parkes

If an infant is circumcised, clean the penis with warm water & apply petroleum jelly at every diaper change.

Hydatiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a type of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Key signs/symptoms of a molar pregnancy include: "Prune juice" discharge; Hyperemesis (severe n/v); Elevated hCG levels

Hydatiform Mole

Cathy Parkes

Hydatiform mole is a type of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Key S&S include: "Prune juice" discharge; Hyperemesis (severe n/v); Elevated hCG levels

Hydatiform Mole

Cathy Parkes

Hydatiform mole is a type of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Key S&S include: "Prune juice" discharge; Hyperemesis (severe n/v); Elevated hCG levels

How to calculate a pregnant patient's due date:  Add 9 months PLUS 1 week from the first day of their last menstrual period.  Example: Last menstrual period started on 6/1/20. Add 9 months PLUS 1 week. Expected due date = 3/8/21

Calculating Due Date

Rachel Simmons

How to calculate a pregnant patient's due date: Add 9 months PLUS 1 week from the first day of their last menstrual period.

Calculating Due Date

Rachel Simmons

How to calculate a pregnant patient's due date: Add 9 months PLUS 1 week from the first day of their last menstrual period.

Between 18 and 32 weeks gestation, the fundal height = gestational age.

Gestational Age

Cathy Parkes

Between 18 and 32 weeks gestation, the fundal height = gestational age.

Gestational Age

Cathy Parkes

Between 18 and 32 weeks gestation, the fundal height = gestational age.

Fundal assessment is part of the routine postpartum assessment. If the fundus is displaced laterally, have the patient empty their bladder!

Fundal Assessment

Cathy Parkes

Fundal assessment is part of the routine postpartum assessment. If the fundus is displaced laterally, have the patient empty their bladder!

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Fundal Assessment

Cathy Parkes

Fundal assessment is part of the routine postpartum assessment. If the fundus is displaced laterally, have the patient empty their bladder!

1 comment
VEAL CHOP

VEAL CHOP

Cathy Parkes

To understand the cause of different fetal heart rate patterns, remember VEAL CHOP. Variable decelerations -> Cord compression. Early deceleration -> Head compression. Accelerations -> OK. Late decelerations -> Placental...

VEAL CHOP

Cathy Parkes

To understand the cause of different fetal heart rate patterns, remember VEAL CHOP. Variable decelerations -> Cord compression. Early deceleration -> Head compression. Accelerations -> OK. Late decelerations -> Placental...

Car seat safety for newborns includes installing the car seat in the back/middle seat, using a rear-facing seat with a 5-point harness until at least age 2.

Car Seat Safety for Newborns

Cathy Parkes

Car seat safety for newborns includes installing the car seat in the back/middle seat, using a rear-facing seat with a 5-point harness until at least age 2, installing the seat...

Car Seat Safety for Newborns

Cathy Parkes

Car seat safety for newborns includes installing the car seat in the back/middle seat, using a rear-facing seat with a 5-point harness until at least age 2, installing the seat...

Acrocyanosis is the bluish discoloration of fingers/hands and toes/feet and is an expected finding in the newborn. Report persistent central cyanosis to the provider.

Acrocyanosis

Cathy Parkes

Acrocyanosis is the bluish discoloration of fingers/hands and toes/feet and is an expected finding in the newborn. Report persistent central cyanosis to the provider.

Acrocyanosis

Cathy Parkes

Acrocyanosis is the bluish discoloration of fingers/hands and toes/feet and is an expected finding in the newborn. Report persistent central cyanosis to the provider.

Two types of ultrasonography used in pregnancy are transvaginal (ultrasound transducer placed in the patient's vagina) and abdominal (transducer placed on the outside of the abdomen).

Ultrasonography

Cathy Parkes

Two types of ultrasonography used in pregnancy are transvaginal (ultrasound transducer placed in the patient's vagina) and abdominal (transducer placed on the outside of the abdomen). 

Ultrasonography

Cathy Parkes

Two types of ultrasonography used in pregnancy are transvaginal (ultrasound transducer placed in the patient's vagina) and abdominal (transducer placed on the outside of the abdomen). 

When beginning testing for infertility, semen analysis is often the first test performed. This is non-invasive and less expensive than further testing!

Testing for Infertility

Cathy Parkes

When beginning testing for infertility, semen analysis is often the first test performed. This is non-invasive and less expensive than further testing!

Testing for Infertility

Cathy Parkes

When beginning testing for infertility, semen analysis is often the first test performed. This is non-invasive and less expensive than further testing!

Treatment for infertility is unique to the individual, but some treatments include: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Embryo Transfer (ET), the use of donor eggs/sperm/embryo, and the use of a gestational carrier (surrogate).

Treatment for Infertility

Cathy Parkes

Treatment for infertility is unique to the individual, but some treatments include: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Embryo Transfer (ET), the use of donor eggs/sperm/embryo, and the use...

Treatment for Infertility

Cathy Parkes

Treatment for infertility is unique to the individual, but some treatments include: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Embryo Transfer (ET), the use of donor eggs/sperm/embryo, and the use...

Toxoplasmosis is a teratogenic parasitic infection acquired by consumption of raw or undercooked meat, or by handling cat feces.

Toxoplasmosis

Cathy Parkes

Toxoplasmosis is a teratogenic parasitic infection acquired by consumption of raw or undercooked meat, or by handling cat feces.

Toxoplasmosis

Cathy Parkes

Toxoplasmosis is a teratogenic parasitic infection acquired by consumption of raw or undercooked meat, or by handling cat feces.

The fetal heart tones cannot be assessed using a doppler until around 12 weeks gestational age. Prior to this time, heart tones can only be identified using ultrasound.

Assessing Fetal Heart Tones

Cathy Parkes

The fetal heart tones cannot be assessed using a doppler until around 12 weeks gestational age. Prior to this time, heart tones can only be identified using ultrasound.

Assessing Fetal Heart Tones

Cathy Parkes

The fetal heart tones cannot be assessed using a doppler until around 12 weeks gestational age. Prior to this time, heart tones can only be identified using ultrasound.

Probable signs of pregnancy include Chadwick's Sign, Goodell's Sign, Hegar's Sign, ballottement, and a positive pregnancy test. These findings are probably related to pregnancy, but could have other explanations.

Probable Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Probable signs of pregnancy include Chadwick's Sign, Goodell's Sign, Hegar's Sign, ballottement, and a positive pregnancy test. These findings are probably related to pregnancy, but could have other explanations.

Probable Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Probable signs of pregnancy include Chadwick's Sign, Goodell's Sign, Hegar's Sign, ballottement, and a positive pregnancy test. These findings are probably related to pregnancy, but could have other explanations.

A patient's estimated date of delivery can be determined using Naegele's Rule. After determining the first day of the patient's last period, subtract 3 months, then add 1 week and 1 year.

Naegele's Rule

Cathy Parkes

A patient's estimated date of delivery can be determined using Naegele's Rule. After determining the first day of the patient's last period, subtract 3 months, then add 1 week and...

Naegele's Rule

Cathy Parkes

A patient's estimated date of delivery can be determined using Naegele's Rule. After determining the first day of the patient's last period, subtract 3 months, then add 1 week and...

Supine hypotensive syndrome is caused by a pregnant patient's heavy uterus compressing the inferior vena cava when lying supine.

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome

Cathy Parkes

Supine hypotensive syndrome is caused by a pregnant patient's heavy uterus compressing the inferior vena cava when lying supine. Educate patients to rest either in a side-lying position, or with...

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome

Cathy Parkes

Supine hypotensive syndrome is caused by a pregnant patient's heavy uterus compressing the inferior vena cava when lying supine. Educate patients to rest either in a side-lying position, or with...

A patient who was rubella non-immune during pregnancy should receive the MMR vaccine after delivery (this vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy).  Educate the patient that pregnancy must be avoided for at least 28 days after immunization.

MMR Vaccine and Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

A patient who was rubella non-immune during pregnancy should receive the MMR vaccine after delivery (this vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy). Educate the patient that pregnancy must be avoided for at...

MMR Vaccine and Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

A patient who was rubella non-immune during pregnancy should receive the MMR vaccine after delivery (this vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy). Educate the patient that pregnancy must be avoided for at...

A macrosomic infant (large for gestational age) is one who is over 4,000 g (or 8 lbs., 13 oz.). These infants are at risk for hypoglycemia. Assess for this complication by performing early and frequent blood glucose testing.

Macrosomic Infants

Cathy Parkes

A macrosomic infant (large for gestational age) is one who is over 4,000 g (or 8 lbs., 13 oz.). 

Macrosomic Infants

Cathy Parkes

A macrosomic infant (large for gestational age) is one who is over 4,000 g (or 8 lbs., 13 oz.). 

Positive signs of pregnancy include identification of fetal heart sounds, fetal movement felt by a healthcare provider, and ultrasound visualization of the fetus. There is no other explanation for these findings than pregnancy.

Positive Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Positive signs of pregnancy include identification of fetal heart sounds, fetal movement felt by a healthcare provider, and ultrasound visualization of the fetus. There is no other explanation for these...

1 comment

Positive Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Positive signs of pregnancy include identification of fetal heart sounds, fetal movement felt by a healthcare provider, and ultrasound visualization of the fetus. There is no other explanation for these...

1 comment
One test that can be performed for infertility is a hysterosalpingogram (HSG).

Infertility Test: Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

Cathy Parkes

One test that can be performed for infertility is a hysterosalpingogram (HSG). Because this test uses contrast dye to assess the patency of the fallopian tubes, be sure to assess...

Infertility Test: Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

Cathy Parkes

One test that can be performed for infertility is a hysterosalpingogram (HSG). Because this test uses contrast dye to assess the patency of the fallopian tubes, be sure to assess...

Natural family planning methods involve avoiding intercourse during fertile periods by tracking the patient's menstrual cycle, or assessing the basal body temperature or cervical mucus consistency daily.

Natural Family Planning

Cathy Parkes

Natural family planning methods involve avoiding intercourse during fertile periods by tracking the patient's menstrual cycle, or assessing the basal body temperature or cervical mucus consistency daily.

Natural Family Planning

Cathy Parkes

Natural family planning methods involve avoiding intercourse during fertile periods by tracking the patient's menstrual cycle, or assessing the basal body temperature or cervical mucus consistency daily.

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a test for genetic abnormalities performed between 15 and 20 weeks gestation.

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)

Cathy Parkes

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a test for genetic abnormalities performed between 15 and 20 weeks gestation.

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)

Cathy Parkes

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a test for genetic abnormalities performed between 15 and 20 weeks gestation.

First trimester lab testing should include: CBC, urinalysis, STI testing, pap test, blood typing (including Rh factor), rubella titer, Hepatitis B, and HIV. High risk patients may also require quantitative hCG level testing.

Lab Tests for First Trimester

Cathy Parkes

First trimester lab testing should include: CBC, urinalysis, STI testing, pap test, blood typing (including Rh factor), rubella titer, Hepatitis B, and HIV. High risk patients may also require quantitative...

Lab Tests for First Trimester

Cathy Parkes

First trimester lab testing should include: CBC, urinalysis, STI testing, pap test, blood typing (including Rh factor), rubella titer, Hepatitis B, and HIV. High risk patients may also require quantitative...

Warning signs in pregnancy include diarrhea, fever, chills, severe abdominal cramping, sever vomiting, vaginal bleeding, and decreased fetal activity. Notify your provider immediately.

Warning Signs in Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Educate patients about warning signs in pregnancy for which they should notify their provider: diarrhea, fever, chills, severe abdominal cramping or pain, severe vomiting, vaginal bleeding, and decreased fetal activity...

Warning Signs in Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Educate patients about warning signs in pregnancy for which they should notify their provider: diarrhea, fever, chills, severe abdominal cramping or pain, severe vomiting, vaginal bleeding, and decreased fetal activity...

Combined oral contraceptive pills (contain estrogen and progestin) are contraindicated for patients who are breastfeeding, smoke, or have a history of blood clots, stroke, coronary artery disease, or hypertension.

Oral Contraceptives

Cathy Parkes

Combined oral contraceptive pills (contain estrogen and progestin) are contraindicated for patients who are breastfeeding, smoke, or have a history of blood clots, stroke, coronary artery disease, or hypertension.

Oral Contraceptives

Cathy Parkes

Combined oral contraceptive pills (contain estrogen and progestin) are contraindicated for patients who are breastfeeding, smoke, or have a history of blood clots, stroke, coronary artery disease, or hypertension.

Any pregnant patient complaining of unilateral stabbing pain in the lower abdomen/pelvis should be evaluated for ectopic pregnancy.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Any pregnant patient complaining of unilateral stabbing pain in the lower abdomen/pelvis should be evaluated for ectopic pregnancy.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Any pregnant patient complaining of unilateral stabbing pain in the lower abdomen/pelvis should be evaluated for ectopic pregnancy.

Expected weight gain during pregnancy  Normal weight women: 25-35 pounds. Underweight women: 28-40 pounds. Overweight patients: 15-25 pounds.

Pregnancy Weight Gain

Cathy Parkes

Expected weight gain during pregnancy differs depending on the mother's pre-pregnancy weight.

Pregnancy Weight Gain

Cathy Parkes

Expected weight gain during pregnancy differs depending on the mother's pre-pregnancy weight.

A reactive (normal) test is indicated by a FHR with a normal rate, moderate variability, and two accelerations (greater than or equal to 15 bpm for greater than or equal to 15 seconds) in 20 minutes.

Nonstress Test (NST)

Cathy Parkes

A nonstress test (NST) is a non-invasive test done to examine the fetal heart rate and response to fetal movement.

Nonstress Test (NST)

Cathy Parkes

A nonstress test (NST) is a non-invasive test done to examine the fetal heart rate and response to fetal movement.

A Bishop score is used to determine maternal readiness for labor induction based on cervical readiness. A score >8 in a multiparous patient, or >10 in a nulliparous patient indicates readiness for induction.

Bishop Score

Cathy Parkes

A Bishop score is used to determine maternal readiness for labor induction based on cervical readiness.

Bishop Score

Cathy Parkes

A Bishop score is used to determine maternal readiness for labor induction based on cervical readiness.

An Indirect Coombs test is used to determine if a pregnant patient is Rh-positive or Rh-negative.

Rh-Negative Patients

Cathy Parkes

An Indirect Coombs test is used to determine if a pregnant patient is Rh-positive or Rh-negative.

Rh-Negative Patients

Cathy Parkes

An Indirect Coombs test is used to determine if a pregnant patient is Rh-positive or Rh-negative.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are measured with prenatal bloodwork or with an amniocentesis.  HIGH levels of AFP are associated with neural tube defects. LOW levels of AFP are associated with chromosomal disorders (such as Down Syndrome).

AFP measurement

Cathy Parkes

During amniocentesis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are measured. HIGH levels of AFP are associated with neural tube defects. LOW levels of AFP are associated with chromosomal disorders (such as Down Syndrome)....

AFP measurement

Cathy Parkes

During amniocentesis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are measured. HIGH levels of AFP are associated with neural tube defects. LOW levels of AFP are associated with chromosomal disorders (such as Down Syndrome)....

 A person who gets medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) shots for contraception needs to increase their intake of Calcium and Vitamin D because a key side effect of this medication is decreased bone density!

Depo-Provera Side Effect

Cathy Parkes

 A person who gets medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) shots for contraception needs to increase their intake of Calcium and Vitamin D because a key side effect of this medication is decreased bone density!

Depo-Provera Side Effect

Cathy Parkes

 A person who gets medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) shots for contraception needs to increase their intake of Calcium and Vitamin D because a key side effect of this medication is decreased bone density!

To confirm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM), you can use one of these tests: Nitrazine paper test: Tests the pH of vaginal secretions.
Ferning test: Amniotic fluid mixed together with estrogen creates a “fern-like” pattern under a microscope.

Premature Rupture of Membranes

Cathy Parkes

To confirm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM), you can use one of these tests: Nitrazine paper test, Ferning test

Premature Rupture of Membranes

Cathy Parkes

To confirm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM), you can use one of these tests: Nitrazine paper test, Ferning test

Presumptive Signs of pregnancy are things that can be explained by OTHER reasons besides pregnancy. Examples: Nausea/vomiting, urinary frequency, amenorrhea, quickening (fetal movements felt by the mother), breast changes, fatigue.

Presumptive Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Presumptive Signs of pregnancy are things that can be explained by OTHER reasons besides pregnancy.

Presumptive Signs of Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Presumptive Signs of pregnancy are things that can be explained by OTHER reasons besides pregnancy.

Injectible medroxyprogesterone (i.e. Depo-Provera) can cause bone loss. Advise patient to take Calcium and Vitamin D supplements to reduce the risk of bone loss.

Injectible Medroxyprogesterone

Cathy Parkes

Injectible medroxyprogesterone can cause bone loss. Advise patient to take Calcium and Vitamin D supplements to reduce the risk of bone loss.

Injectible Medroxyprogesterone

Cathy Parkes

Injectible medroxyprogesterone can cause bone loss. Advise patient to take Calcium and Vitamin D supplements to reduce the risk of bone loss.

Important patient teaching about diaphragms: Should remain in place for 6 hrs after intercourse; Spermicide needs to be reapplied after each act of intercourse. Women need to be refitted: every 2 years, after a 20% weight change, or after a pregnancy.

Diaphragm Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Important patient teaching about diaphragms: Diaphragms should remain in place for 6 hrs after intercourse; Reapply spermicide after intercourse.

Diaphragm Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Important patient teaching about diaphragms: Diaphragms should remain in place for 6 hrs after intercourse; Reapply spermicide after intercourse.

During pregnancy, an ultrasound is typically performed at 18-20 weeks gestation to assess growth, development, and age of the fetus.Full bladder allows better visualization. Instruct mom to drink approximately 1 quart of water before the procedure.

Ulstrasounds in Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

During pregnancies, an ultrasound is typically performed ~ 18-20 weeks gestation to assess for growth, development, and age of the fetus.

Ulstrasounds in Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

During pregnancies, an ultrasound is typically performed ~ 18-20 weeks gestation to assess for growth, development, and age of the fetus.

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is a procedure used to identify chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. A small sample of placenta tissue is removed from the uterus. Key Advantage: CVS is done earlier, so it provides an EARLIER diagnosis.

Chorionic Villus Sampling

Cathy Parkes

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is a procedure used to identify chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

Chorionic Villus Sampling

Cathy Parkes

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is a procedure used to identify chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

Maternal Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease that causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up, which can cause birth defects. Teach mom to adhere to a PKU diet 3 months prior to and throughout pregnancy. With PKU, Protein might Kill U.

Maternal Phenylketonuria

Cathy Parkes

Maternal Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease that causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up in the body, which can cause birth defects in the developing fetus.

Maternal Phenylketonuria

Cathy Parkes

Maternal Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease that causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up in the body, which can cause birth defects in the developing fetus.

Care of an infant born to a HIV-positive mom. Scheduled c-section.
Administer antiviral agents during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and to newborn. Avoid forceps, vaccum, scalp electrodes, amniotomy. Breastfeeding NOT recommended.

HIV-Positive Moms

Cathy Parkes

Care of an infant born to a HIV-positive patient

HIV-Positive Moms

Cathy Parkes

Care of an infant born to a HIV-positive patient

Bleeding during pregnancy: PAINLESS bright red bleeding during the second half of pregnancy is indicative of Placenta Previa. Bleeding with INTENSE UTERINE PAIN is indicative of Abruptio Placenta.

Bleeding During Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Causes of bleeding during pregnancy

Bleeding During Pregnancy

Cathy Parkes

Causes of bleeding during pregnancy

Nursing Tips - Fetal Lung Maturity

Fetal Lung Maturity

Cathy Parkes

Fetal lung maturity is determined by the L/S ratio.

Fetal Lung Maturity

Cathy Parkes

Fetal lung maturity is determined by the L/S ratio.