Nursing Tips

Chvostek's Sign

Chvostek's Sign

Cathy Parkes

One sign of hypocalcemia is a positive Chvostek's sign. HINT: You check for the Chovostek's sign by tapping the patient's cheek (over the area of the facial nerve).

Chvostek's Sign

Cathy Parkes

One sign of hypocalcemia is a positive Chvostek's sign. HINT: You check for the Chovostek's sign by tapping the patient's cheek (over the area of the facial nerve).

Plasma cells are a type of B cell which produce and release antibodies against a specific antigen.

Plasma Cells

Cathy Parkes

Plasma cells are a type of B cell which produce and release antibodies against a specific antigen.

Plasma Cells

Cathy Parkes

Plasma cells are a type of B cell which produce and release antibodies against a specific antigen.

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Cathy Parkes

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Cathy Parkes

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

The oliguric phase of acute kidney injury (AKI) is marked by urine output less than 400 mL/day. In the diuresis phase of AKI, urine output can reach 4 - 5 L/day.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) : Oliguric Phase

Cathy Parkes

The oliguric phase of acute kidney injury (AKI) is marked by urine output less than 400 mL/day. In the diuresis phase of AKI, urine output can reach 4 - 5...

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) : Oliguric Phase

Cathy Parkes

The oliguric phase of acute kidney injury (AKI) is marked by urine output less than 400 mL/day. In the diuresis phase of AKI, urine output can reach 4 - 5...

After a tonic-clonic seizure, a patient enters the "postictal phase," and may exhibit confusion, sleepiness, or agitation.

Tonic-clonic Seizure

Cathy Parkes

After a tonic-clonic seizure, a patient enters the "postictal phase," and may exhibit confusion, sleepiness, or agitation.

Tonic-clonic Seizure

Cathy Parkes

After a tonic-clonic seizure, a patient enters the "postictal phase," and may exhibit confusion, sleepiness, or agitation.

A patient with atrial fibrillation (A-Fib) experiences rapid but disorganized depolarization of the atria, causing them to quiver instead of fully squeezing.

Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib)

Cathy Parkes

A patient with atrial fibrillation (A-Fib) experiences rapid but disorganized depolarization of the atria, causing them to quiver instead of fully squeezing. 

Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib)

Cathy Parkes

A patient with atrial fibrillation (A-Fib) experiences rapid but disorganized depolarization of the atria, causing them to quiver instead of fully squeezing. 

A patient with fibrocystic breast changes may experience breast pain and/or movable, tender, rubber-like cysts in the upper outer quadrant of the breast.

Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Patient Education

Cathy Parkes

A patient with fibrocystic breast changes may experience breast pain and/or movable, tender, rubber-like cysts in the upper outer quadrant of the breast.

Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Patient Education

Cathy Parkes

A patient with fibrocystic breast changes may experience breast pain and/or movable, tender, rubber-like cysts in the upper outer quadrant of the breast.

A patient with an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm may have a pulsating abdominal mass with a bruit. Do NOT palpate this due to the risk for rupture!

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Cathy Parkes

A patient with an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm may have a pulsating abdominal mass with a bruit. Do NOT palpate this due to the risk for rupture!

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Cathy Parkes

A patient with an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm may have a pulsating abdominal mass with a bruit. Do NOT palpate this due to the risk for rupture!

A patient with sinus bradycardia will likely require no treatment. However, if they are symptomatic, treatment with atropine or a pacemaker may be indicated.

Sinus Bradycardia

Cathy Parkes

A patient with sinus bradycardia will likely require no treatment. However, if they are symptomatic, treatment with atropine or a pacemaker may be indicated.

Sinus Bradycardia

Cathy Parkes

A patient with sinus bradycardia will likely require no treatment. However, if they are symptomatic, treatment with atropine or a pacemaker may be indicated.

A patient with hyperpituitarism may require surgical treatment with a hypophysectomy.

Hyperpituitarism

Cathy Parkes

A patient with hyperpituitarism may require surgical treatment with a hypophysectomy. 

Hyperpituitarism

Cathy Parkes

A patient with hyperpituitarism may require surgical treatment with a hypophysectomy. 

A patient with paradoxical pulse and an EKG showing electrical alternans should be evaluated for cardiac tamponade.

Cardiac Tamponade

Cathy Parkes

A patient with paradoxical pulse and an EKG showing electrical alternans should be evaluated for cardiac tamponade.

Cardiac Tamponade

Cathy Parkes

A patient with paradoxical pulse and an EKG showing electrical alternans should be evaluated for cardiac tamponade.

A patient with a tension pneumothorax is likely to have tracheal deviation towards the unaffected side. Assess respiratory status in any patient with this finding!

Tension Pneumothorax

Cathy Parkes

A patient with a tension pneumothorax is likely to have tracheal deviation towards the unaffected side. Assess respiratory status in any patient with this finding!

Tension Pneumothorax

Cathy Parkes

A patient with a tension pneumothorax is likely to have tracheal deviation towards the unaffected side. Assess respiratory status in any patient with this finding!

A patient with elevated hBNP (> 100 pg/mL) should be evaluated for Heart Failure.

Elevated hBNP

Cathy Parkes

A patient with elevated hBNP (> 100 pg/mL) should be evaluated for Heart Failure.

Elevated hBNP

Cathy Parkes

A patient with elevated hBNP (> 100 pg/mL) should be evaluated for Heart Failure.

Calcium (Ca) expected range: 9 - 10.5 mEq/L.

Calcium Ranges

Cathy Parkes

Calcium (Ca) expected range: 9 - 10.5 mEq/L HINT: California (CA) is due for a big earthquake that may measure 9 - 10.5 on the Richter scale.

Calcium Ranges

Cathy Parkes

Calcium (Ca) expected range: 9 - 10.5 mEq/L HINT: California (CA) is due for a big earthquake that may measure 9 - 10.5 on the Richter scale.

A patient who experienced a long-bone fracture is at risk for a fat embolism. Immediately report any dyspnea, confusion, tachypnea, tachycardia, or chest pain to the provider.

Long-bone Fractures

Cathy Parkes

A patient who experienced a long-bone fracture is at risk for a fat embolism. Immediately report any dyspnea, confusion, tachypnea, tachycardia, or chest pain to the provider.

Long-bone Fractures

Cathy Parkes

A patient who experienced a long-bone fracture is at risk for a fat embolism. Immediately report any dyspnea, confusion, tachypnea, tachycardia, or chest pain to the provider.

A patient with appendicitis is likely to have RLQ pain at McBurney's Point along with rebound tenderness, nausea/vomiting, and fever.

Appendicitis: Nursing Care

Cathy Parkes

A patient with appendicitis is likely to have RLQ pain at McBurney's Point along with rebound tenderness, nausea/vomiting, and fever.

Appendicitis: Nursing Care

Cathy Parkes

A patient with appendicitis is likely to have RLQ pain at McBurney's Point along with rebound tenderness, nausea/vomiting, and fever.

A patient undergoing hemodialysis may have an arteriovenous fistula in the arm. Educate patient that blood pressures, IVs, and blood draws must be done from the arm without the shunt.

Hemodialysis: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

A patient undergoing hemodialysis may have an arteriovenous fistula in the arm. Educate patient that blood pressures, IVs, and blood draws must be done from the arm without the shunt....

Hemodialysis: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

A patient undergoing hemodialysis may have an arteriovenous fistula in the arm. Educate patient that blood pressures, IVs, and blood draws must be done from the arm without the shunt....

A patient with asthma who is experiencing airway obstruction unresponsive to usual therapy is experiencing status asthmaticus. Administer oxygen and prepare for emergency intubation!

Status Asthmaticus

Cathy Parkes

A patient with asthma who is experiencing airway obstruction unresponsive to usual therapy is experiencing status asthmaticus. Administer oxygen and prepare for emergency intubation!

Status Asthmaticus

Cathy Parkes

A patient with asthma who is experiencing airway obstruction unresponsive to usual therapy is experiencing status asthmaticus. Administer oxygen and prepare for emergency intubation!

A patient who experiences prolonged standing (like nurses!) is at risk for developing varicose veins. Educate patients with this risk factor to wear compression stockings and elevate the legs when possible.

Varicose Veins: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

A patient who experiences prolonged standing (like nurses!) is at risk for developing varicose veins. Educate patients with this risk factor to wear compression stockings and elevate the legs when...

Varicose Veins: Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

A patient who experiences prolonged standing (like nurses!) is at risk for developing varicose veins. Educate patients with this risk factor to wear compression stockings and elevate the legs when...

A patient reporting a loss of central vision should be evaluated for macular degeneration.

Loss of Central Vision

Cathy Parkes

A patient reporting a loss of central vision should be evaluated for macular degeneration.

Loss of Central Vision

Cathy Parkes

A patient reporting a loss of central vision should be evaluated for macular degeneration.

Assess any skin lesions for potential cancerous changes using ABCDE.

Assessing Skin Lesions with ABCDE

Cathy Parkes

Assess any skin lesions for potential cancerous changes using ABCDE.

Assessing Skin Lesions with ABCDE

Cathy Parkes

Assess any skin lesions for potential cancerous changes using ABCDE.

Cardiac Enzymes are released in response to cardiac ischemia. They include CK-MB, Myoglobin, Troponin T, and Troponin I. Troponin is the most specific!

Cardiac Enzymes

Cathy Parkes

Cardiac Enzymes are released in response to cardiac ischemia. They include CK-MB, Myoglobin, Troponin T, and Troponin I. Troponin is the most specific!

Cardiac Enzymes

Cathy Parkes

Cardiac Enzymes are released in response to cardiac ischemia. They include CK-MB, Myoglobin, Troponin T, and Troponin I. Troponin is the most specific!

A patient presenting with a chancre (ulcer) on the genitals should be evaluated for syphilis. The chancre should be cultured, and a blood test should be done to assess for this sexually transmitted infection.

Chancre

Cathy Parkes

A patient presenting with a chancre (ulcer) on the genitals should be evaluated for syphilis. The chancre should be cultured, and a blood test should be done to assess for...

Chancre

Cathy Parkes

A patient presenting with a chancre (ulcer) on the genitals should be evaluated for syphilis. The chancre should be cultured, and a blood test should be done to assess for...

A patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is likely to have a "barrel chest" appearance, use accessory muscles to breathe, have clubbing of the fingernails, and exhibit hyperresonance upon percussion.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Signs & Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

A patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is likely to have a "barrel chest" appearance, use accessory muscles to breathe, have clubbing of the fingernails, and exhibit hyperresonance upon...

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Signs & Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

A patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is likely to have a "barrel chest" appearance, use accessory muscles to breathe, have clubbing of the fingernails, and exhibit hyperresonance upon...

A client experiencing shock is at risk for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC). Monitor for signs of clotting/bleeding and report any of these findings promptly.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)

Cathy Parkes

A client experiencing shock is at risk for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC). Monitor for signs of clotting/bleeding and report any of these findings promptly.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)

Cathy Parkes

A client experiencing shock is at risk for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC). Monitor for signs of clotting/bleeding and report any of these findings promptly.

Nursing Tips - Ostomy Patient Teaching

Ostomy Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Ostomy patient teaching:  Cut opening in skin barrier ≤ 1/8" bigger than the measured stoma size to prevent skin damage from contact with ostomy output. Assess stoma regularly - should...

Ostomy Patient Teaching

Cathy Parkes

Ostomy patient teaching:  Cut opening in skin barrier ≤ 1/8" bigger than the measured stoma size to prevent skin damage from contact with ostomy output. Assess stoma regularly - should...

A pap test to screen for cervical cancer should be performed every three years starting three years after a patient's first instance of sexual intercourse, or by age 21.

Pap Tests

Cathy Parkes

A pap test to screen for cervical cancer should be performed every three years starting three years after a patient's first instance of sexual intercourse, or by age 21. 

Pap Tests

Cathy Parkes

A pap test to screen for cervical cancer should be performed every three years starting three years after a patient's first instance of sexual intercourse, or by age 21. 

A negative feedback loop governs most endocrine hormones.

Negative Feedback Loop

Cathy Parkes

A negative feedback loop governs most endocrine hormones. In this type of feedback, when the body senses there is not enough of a hormone circulating in the blood, changes are...

Negative Feedback Loop

Cathy Parkes

A negative feedback loop governs most endocrine hormones. In this type of feedback, when the body senses there is not enough of a hormone circulating in the blood, changes are...

A major complication of peptic ulcer disease is perforation of an ulcer. Assess for symptoms of perforation such as severe pain, fever, or a rigid/boardlike abdomen.

Peptic Ulcer Disease: Signs and Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

A major complication of peptic ulcer disease is perforation of an ulcer. Assess for symptoms of perforation such as severe pain, fever, or a rigid/boardlike abdomen.

Peptic Ulcer Disease: Signs and Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

A major complication of peptic ulcer disease is perforation of an ulcer. Assess for symptoms of perforation such as severe pain, fever, or a rigid/boardlike abdomen.

A key finding in Huntington's Disease is chorea, which is a type of abnormal and excessive involuntary movement. Tetrabenazine may be given to treat this symptom.

Chorea and Huntington's Disease

Cathy Parkes

A key finding in Huntington's Disease is chorea, which is a type of abnormal and excessive involuntary movement. Tetrabenazine may be given to treat this symptom.

Chorea and Huntington's Disease

Cathy Parkes

A key finding in Huntington's Disease is chorea, which is a type of abnormal and excessive involuntary movement. Tetrabenazine may be given to treat this symptom.

A high pressure alarm from a ventilator could indicate Pulmonary edema, Pneumothorax, Bronchospasm, Biting of the tube, Secretion excess, Coughing, or a Kink in the tubing.

High Pressure Alarm: Causes

Cathy Parkes

A high pressure alarm from a ventilator could indicate Pulmonary edema, Pneumothorax, Bronchospasm, Biting of the tube, Secretion excess, Coughing, or a Kink in the tubing.

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High Pressure Alarm: Causes

Cathy Parkes

A high pressure alarm from a ventilator could indicate Pulmonary edema, Pneumothorax, Bronchospasm, Biting of the tube, Secretion excess, Coughing, or a Kink in the tubing.

1 comment
Following a bronchoscopy (visualization of the structures of the airway with sedation), ensure the patient's gag reflex has returned prior to allowing the patient to eat or drink.

Bronchoscopy: Nursing Care

Cathy Parkes

Following a bronchoscopy (visualization of the structures of the airway with sedation), ensure the patient's gag reflex has returned prior to allowing the patient to eat or drink.

Bronchoscopy: Nursing Care

Cathy Parkes

Following a bronchoscopy (visualization of the structures of the airway with sedation), ensure the patient's gag reflex has returned prior to allowing the patient to eat or drink.

For a patient who has suffered a BURN, be sure to assess for inhalation injury. Symptoms: singed eyebrows or nasal hair, and sooty sputum.

Burn Inhalation Injury

Cathy Parkes

For a patient who has suffered a BURN, be sure to assess for inhalation injury. Symptoms: singed eyebrows or nasal hair, and sooty sputum.

Burn Inhalation Injury

Cathy Parkes

For a patient who has suffered a BURN, be sure to assess for inhalation injury. Symptoms: singed eyebrows or nasal hair, and sooty sputum.

For symptoms of compartment syndrome, remember the 5Ps: Paresthesia, Paralysis, Pallor, Pulselessness, Intense Pain (unrelieved by drugs and/or with passive movement)

Compartment Syndrome 5Ps

Cathy Parkes

For symptoms of compartment syndrome, remember the 5Ps: Paresthesia, Paralysis, Pallor, Pulselessness, Intense Pain

Compartment Syndrome 5Ps

Cathy Parkes

For symptoms of compartment syndrome, remember the 5Ps: Paresthesia, Paralysis, Pallor, Pulselessness, Intense Pain

Chest physiotherapy is a key intervention for Cystic Fibrosis! Since it uses percussion, vibration, postural drainage and breathing exercises to loosen respiratory secretions, should be scheduled BEFORE meals or 1-2 hrs after meals to avoid vomiting.

Chest Physiotherapy Treatments

Cathy Parkes

Chest physiotherapy treatments should be included 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals to avoid vomiting.

Chest Physiotherapy Treatments

Cathy Parkes

Chest physiotherapy treatments should be included 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals to avoid vomiting.

Best practices for patients with DYSPHAGIA: Sit patient in upright position (High-fowler's). Lightly stroke chin/throat to promote swallowing. Teach patient to tuck their chin towards their chest when swallowing. Thicken thin liquids.

Dysphagia Best Practices

Cathy Parkes

Best practices for patients with DYSPHAGIA

Dysphagia Best Practices

Cathy Parkes

Best practices for patients with DYSPHAGIA

Dementia has slow onset, does NOT alter vital signs, and is irreversible. Delirium has rapid onset, can alter vital signs and level of consciousness, and is reversible.

Dementia vs. delirium

Cathy Parkes

Dementia vs delirium: Dementia has slow onset, does NOT alter vital signs, and is irreversible. Delirium has rapid onset, can alter vital signs and level of consciousness, and is reversible.

Dementia vs. delirium

Cathy Parkes

Dementia vs delirium: Dementia has slow onset, does NOT alter vital signs, and is irreversible. Delirium has rapid onset, can alter vital signs and level of consciousness, and is reversible.

Patients with asthma should monitor their airway with a peak flow meter. This device can detect airway narrowing BEFORE the onset of symptoms.

Lung capacity measurement

Cathy Parkes

Patients with asthma should monitor their airway with a peak flow meter. 

Lung capacity measurement

Cathy Parkes

Patients with asthma should monitor their airway with a peak flow meter. 

Diagnosis of meningitis is done by analyzing the patient's CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).  Bacterial meningitis: CSF is cloudy with ↓ glucose. Viral meningitis: CSF is clear and glucose levels are typically normal.

Meningitis diagnosis

Cathy Parkes

Diagnosis of meningitis is done by analyzing the patient's CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).

Meningitis diagnosis

Cathy Parkes

Diagnosis of meningitis is done by analyzing the patient's CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).

Diabetic foot care teaching: Inspect feet daily using a mirror. Check shoes for objects; Apply moisturizer to feet, but not between toes; Wear cotton socks; Cut nails straight across; Do not use OTC products; Do not use heating pads on feet.

Diabetic Foot Care

Cathy Parkes

Diabetic foot care teaching: Inspect feet; Apply moisturizer; Wear cotton socks; Cut nails straight across; Don't use OTC products or use heating pads on feet.

Diabetic Foot Care

Cathy Parkes

Diabetic foot care teaching: Inspect feet; Apply moisturizer; Wear cotton socks; Cut nails straight across; Don't use OTC products or use heating pads on feet.

With a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), the urinanalysis will be positive for leukocyte esterase and nitrites.

Urinary Tract Infection

Cathy Parkes

With a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), the urinanalysis may be positive for leukocyte esterase and nitrites.

Urinary Tract Infection

Cathy Parkes

With a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), the urinanalysis may be positive for leukocyte esterase and nitrites.

With Diabetes InSIPidus, you will want to SIP a lot of water. Diabetes Insipidus causes the patient to urinate large quantities of dilute urine, leaving the patient dehydrated and thirsty!

Diabetes Insipidus

Cathy Parkes

With Diabetes InSIPidus, you will want to SIP a lot of water. Diabetes Insipidus causes the patient to urinate large quantities of dilute urine, leaving the patient dehydrated and thirsty!

Diabetes Insipidus

Cathy Parkes

With Diabetes InSIPidus, you will want to SIP a lot of water. Diabetes Insipidus causes the patient to urinate large quantities of dilute urine, leaving the patient dehydrated and thirsty!

Key labs with Glomerulonephritis: Serum: Positive antistreptolysin-O titer. Urinanalysis: hematuria, proteinuria. Throat culture: Positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

Glomerulonephritis Labs

Cathy Parkes

Key labs with Glomerulonephritis: Serum: Positive antistreptolysin-O titer. Urinanalysis: hematuria, proteinuria. Throat culture: Positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

Glomerulonephritis Labs

Cathy Parkes

Key labs with Glomerulonephritis: Serum: Positive antistreptolysin-O titer. Urinanalysis: hematuria, proteinuria. Throat culture: Positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are STDs that can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and infertility if not treated promptly.

Chlamydia & Gonorrhea

Cathy Parkes

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are STDs that can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and infertility if not treated promptly.

Chlamydia & Gonorrhea

Cathy Parkes

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are STDs that can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and infertility if not treated promptly.

How to remember that Rheumatoid Arthritis causes swan neck and boutonniere deformities: A swan is going to the prom (with a boutonniere on) to dance - exercise helps his RA!

Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

How to remember that Rheumatoid Arthritis causes swan neck and boutonniere deformities

Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms

Cathy Parkes

How to remember that Rheumatoid Arthritis causes swan neck and boutonniere deformities

During a patient's seizure: Lower patient to the bed or floor if standing/sitting. Turn the patient to his/her side. Loosen restrictive clothing. Do NOT put anything in the patient’s mouth. Do NOT restrain patient. Note onset/duration of seizure.

Seizures

Cathy Parkes

During a seizure, take these important nursing actions

Seizures

Cathy Parkes

During a seizure, take these important nursing actions

Innate vs. Acquired Immunity. Innate Immunity: Defense mechanisms in the body that respond immediately to all antigens. Acquired Immunity: Body produces antibodies in response to a specific antigen through the action of B and T lymphocytes.

Innate v. Acquired Immunity

Cathy Parkes

Innate vs. Acquired Immunity Pathophysiology

Innate v. Acquired Immunity

Cathy Parkes

Innate vs. Acquired Immunity Pathophysiology

Nursing Tips - Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH

Cathy Parkes

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) causes the excess water to be reabsorbed by the kidneys, resulting in hypervolemia.

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH

Cathy Parkes

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) causes the excess water to be reabsorbed by the kidneys, resulting in hypervolemia.