Med-Surg - Reproductive System, part 1: Anatomy & Physiology Review
by Cathy Parkes November 15, 2022 Updated: February 12, 2024 4 min read
Cathy provides a brief anatomy and physiology review of the female and male reproductive systems. She points out the key organs of the female reproductive system and provides a review of the menstrual cycle. Cathy then points out key organs in the male reproductive system and provides a review of the sperm pathway. At the end of the video, Cathy provides a quiz to test your knowledge of some of the key points covered in the video.
- 00:00 A&P Review - Reproductive System
- 00:50 Female Reproductive System
- 02:05 Menstrual Cycle
- 03:38 Male Reproductive System
- 05:24 A&P Quiz
Hi. I'm Cathy with Level Up RN. In this video, I will be providing an anatomy and physiology review of the female and male reproductive system. And at the end of the video, I'm going to give you guys a little quiz to test your knowledge of some of the key points I'll be covering in the video, so definitely stay tuned for that. And I will be following along with our Level Up RN Medical-Surgical Nursing Flashcards, and specifically, I will be in the section that covers the reproductive system. If you have our flashcards, definitely pull those out so you can follow along with me. And if you are new to our channel, welcome. We are so happy to have you, and we have hundreds of free videos to help you learn the most important information you need to know to be successful in nursing school, on your exams, and in your practice.
Starting with the female reproductive system, we have two ovaries here, one on either side. This is the site of egg production and is also the organ that produces sex hormones, which include estrogen and progesterone. And then we have fallopian tubes on either side. This allows for passage of the oocytes from the ovary into the uterine cavity. The uterus is made up of the body, which is the corpus, as well as the uterine cervix here, which is the conduit between the uterine cavity and the vagina. The uterus has three layers. The innermost layer is the endometrium, and we will be talking about a disorder that affects this layer in another video in this playlist. And then the middle layer is the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle, and then the outermost layer is the serosa. Below the uterus, we have the vagina, which is a hollow, flexible tube that connects the uterine cervix to the vulva.
Let's do a brief overview of the menstrual cycle. So the menstrual cycle contains the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. So the follicular phase runs from the first day of menstruation up until ovulation. During this time, the pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, and this stimulates follicular maturation in the ovaries. So a follicle is a fluid-filled cyst that contains an immature egg. During this phase, we also have an increase in estrogen as well as the thickening of the endometrium to prepare for the potential implantation of a fertilized egg. Then midcycle, estrogen peaks, which leads to a surge in luteinizing hormone here, or LH, which causes the release of an oocyte or egg. Then during the luteal phase, the empty follicle that released the egg turns into something called a corpus luteum and produces progesterone. Progesterone thickens the lining of the uterus, and if pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels drop, and the corpus luteum is reabsorbed. And then we start the cycle all over again with the uterine lining being shed through menstruation.
Let's do a review of the male reproductive system. Here we have the testis, which is one of two testes, and this is the site of testosterone and sperm production. Immature sperm go from the testis to the epididymis, where they mature, and they are stored there. When ejaculation occurs, the sperm is expelled into this muscular tube, which is called the vas deferens. And the vas deferens merges with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. And the seminal vesicle adds secretions to the sperm. The ejaculatory duct runs through the prostate gland, which is right here, and the prostate gland will add alkaline fluid to the semen. And then the semen empties out into the urethra, where it is carried out of the body through the penis. One thing I wanted to make sure to mention here is the urethra does double duty. So it allows for the passage of semen out of the body during ejaculation, but it also allows for urination. So urine will go from the bladder here into the urethra where it can be excreted. So you'll notice that the prostate gland surrounds the urethra. So when the prostate gland is enlarged with a condition called BPH or with prostate cancer, that can put pressure on this urethra and cause issues with urination, and we'll definitely be talking about BPH in this playlist.
All right. It's quiz time. I have three questions for you. Question number one. What is the inner layer of the uterus? The answer is the endometrium. Question number two. Which male organ is the site of sperm maturation and storage? The answer is the epididymis. And question number three. Which male reproductive gland surrounds the urethra and contributes alkaline fluid to the semen? The answer is the prostate gland.
Okay. I hope you have found this review to be helpful. Take care, and good luck with studying.
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